A smothered bishop, or “buried bishop” is a Bishop piece that is trapped and immobilised, but cannot be captured. This usually occurs in home terrority, whereas a Bishop in enemy territory can be trapped (and usually captured there).
A smothered bishop is usually blocked in by a pawn chain. Enemy pawns may control all the squares it needs to escape. Or enemy pawns may block its own pawns, and its own pawns block the squares that the Bishop would use to escape.
Diagram: Bishop Smothered by Pawn Chain
Diagram: Bishop Smothered on Original Square
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