A pawn majority is a chess positional advantage where one player has more pawns in a region of the board (usually a wing side) than the opponent. The opponent is then said to have a “pawn minority” in the area.
The majority can be a “2-1” majority (two pawns versus one pawn on that side), or a “3-2” or “3-1” or “4-3” or other such numbers. A pawn majority of “1-0” pawns is not called a pawn majority; it is a passed pawn!
The most common case is a “Queenside Pawn Majority” whereby one player has more pawns on the Queenside than the other (usually with the Kings both castled on the Kingside, and thus both away from the pawns). A typical case for a Queenside pawn majority would be “2-1” or “3-2”, where one player has one less Queenside pawn.
In a balanced position, one player would have a pawn majority on one side of the board, and the opponent would have a corresponding majority on the other side of the board (or perhaps in the center).
The advantage of a pawn majority occurs mostly in the endgame. A pawn majority can create a passed pawn in the endgame. A “2-1” majority can create a passed pawn faster than a “3-2” majority, which in turn is faster than a “4-3” majority. The procedure to create a passed pawn from a pawn majority is often laborious in that all of the pawns must be slowly advanced together. It is not as fast as pushing a passed pawn.
Doubled pawns nullify the value of a pawn majority. A pawn majority that includes a doubled pawn pair is not really a pawn majority, and often cannot create a passed pawn even in the endgame. The extra doubled pawn is of little value in such positions.
A pawn majority can sometimes be useful in the endgame. For example, in a typical middlegame position, if one player has a Queenside pawn majority and the other player has a matching Kingside pawn majority, and both Kings are castled Kingside, then the Kingside pawn majority can be used as a “pawn storm” or “pawn mass” or “pawn roller”. The player with the Queenside pawn majority has the advantage in the endgame (because an “outside passed pawn” can be created), and should try to get all the pieces swapped off. But the player with the Kingside pawn majority may have an attacking and middlegame advantage, and should seek to retain the pieces.
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