Black Openings

There are many openings for Black. They are largely categorized according to what White first move they are played against. The main lines are:

Black against e4: The main replies for Black against 1.e4 are:

Less common but sound Black openings against 1.e4 include:

Dubious Black openings against 1.e4 include:

Black openings against 1.e4 that are dubious and are without really any official name include:

Black against d4: The openings for Black against “1.d4” by White depend mainly on whether Black replies with “1..d5” (Double Queen Pawn Openings) or Black mays “1..Nf6” (Indian Defences).

Queen Pawn Games: d4 d5

Black’s options in the Queen Pawn Games starting with “1.d4 d5, 2.c4” include:

Indian Defences: d4 Nf6

Black’s semi-open defences and Indian defences starting with “1.d4 Nf6” (where Black avoids or delays playing d5) include:

Other Defences to d4

Other sound Black lines against 1.d4 (other than 1..d5 or 1..Nf6) include:

Some non-committal opening moves by Black against “1.d4” that allow White to choose between playing “e4” or “c4”, and hence White decides which type of opening, are:

Dubious Defences to d4

Some uncommon and somewhat dubious-looking openings for Black against 1.d4 include:

Some openings against 1.d4 that are so dubious that they really lack official names:

See also: